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Extracellular ATP activates inflammatory responses to tissue injury. It is also implicated in establishing lasting network hyperexcitability in the brain by acting upon independent receptor systems. Whereas the fast-acting P2X channels have well-established roles driving neuroinflammation and increasing hyperexcitability, the slower-acting metabotropic P2Y receptors have received much less attention. Recent studies of P2Y1 receptor function in seizures and epilepsy have produced contradictory results, suggesting that the role of this receptor during seizure pathology may be highly sensitive to context. Here, by using male mice, we demonstrate that the metabotropic P2Y1 receptor mediates either proconvulsive or anticonvulsive responses, dependent on the time point of activation in relation to the induction of status epilepticus. P2Y1 deficiency or a P2Y1 antagonist (MRS2500) administered before a chemoconvulsant, exacerbates epileptiform activity, whereas a P2Y1 agonist (MRS2365) administered at this time point is anticonvulsant. When these drugs are administered after the onset of status epilepticus, however, their effect on seizure severity is reversed, with the antagonist now anticonvulsant and the agonist proconvulsant. This result was consistent across two different mouse models of status epilepticus (intra-amygdala kainic acid and intraperitoneal pilocarpine). Pharmacologic P2Y1 blockade during status epilepticus reduces also associated brain damage, delays the development of epilepsy and, when applied during epilepsy, suppresses spontaneous seizures, in mice. Our data show a context-specific role for P2Y1 during seizure pathology and demonstrate that blocking P2Y1 after status epilepticus and during epilepsy has potent anticonvulsive effects, suggesting that P2Y1 may be a novel candidate for the treatment of drug-refractory status epilepticus and epilepsy.