Katja Kobow, Christopher A Reid, Erwin A van Vliet, Albert J Becker, Gemma L Carvill, Alica M Goldman, Shinichi Hirose, Iscia Lopes-Cendes, Hela Mrabet Khiari, Annapurna Poduri, Michael R Johnson, David C Henshall
Epigenetics refers broadly to processes that influence medium to long-term gene expression by changing the readability and accessibility of the genetic code. The Neurobiology Commission of the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) recently convened a Task Force to explore and disseminate advances in epigenetics to better understand their role and intersection with genetics and the neurobiology of epilepsies and their co-morbidities, and to accelerate translation of these findings into the development of better therapies. Here, we provide a topic primer on epigenetics, explaining the key processes and findings to date in experimental and human epilepsy. We review the growing list of genes with epigenetic functions that have been linked with epilepsy in humans. We consider potential practical applications, including using epigenetic signals as biomarkers for tissue- and biofluid-based diagnostics and the prospects for developing epigenetic-based treatments for epilepsy. We include a glossary of terms, FAQs and other supports to facilitate a broad understanding of the topic for the non-expert. Last, we review the limitations, research gaps and the next challenges. In summary, epigenetic processes represent important mechanisms controlling the activity of genes, providing opportunities for insight into disease mechanisms, biomarkers and novel therapies for epilepsy.